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The Wasgamuwa Cattle Killer


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“The urgency and concern was that on April 18th a leopard had attacked unprovoked and in broad daylight two construction workers in the Kumana National Park. It killed one laborer and injured the other very seriously.”


Spotted Ghosts that come in the night…


Ravi Corea/SLWCS

May 6th – We had just sat down to have breakfast when the EleBus returned after dropping the village kids at their respective schools. The EleBus crew Asitha and Gamini looked excited as they came dashing towards the Mess Tent. Interrupting each other they managed to somehow impart that the children while waiting for the EleBus at 6 am had observed a leopard walking along the road. They had also heard that a calf had been taken from a cattle stockade belonging to a farmer in the nearby village.

Quickly clambering into Glorious the Land Rover we drove the 3 kilometers to the village that was located at the north end of the Tree Hut Elephant Corridor deep in the forest reserve and met with the farmer whose calf the leopard had taken. Gunewardena is a middle-aged farmer who has a small herd of native cattle. Apparently within the last one and a half months he had lost 5 calves to a leopard!

The present attack had happened two nights ago. Gathered inside the cattle stockade which was just a large open glade with tall teak trees giving shade we looked around to set up several remote cameras to capture the stock raider. Going by the frequency of its attacks it was bound to make another kill again very soon.


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The leopard had taken five calves from this location

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Talking to farmer Gunewardena

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Gunewardena showing where five of his calves were taken within a 6 weeks period by a leopard


The farmer Gunewardena was a compassionate man, considering he had lost five calves he did not seek to avenge his loss by killing the leopard. The usual response of other farmers would be to lace the carcass with poison or set trap guns to get rid of the killer. Appreciating Gunwardena’s compassion towards the leopard we committed to compensate his loss by giving him a calf. It was also an added incentive for him to continue to be compassionate if further attacks occurred. But bringing a calf turned out to be a much harder task than I had anticipated.

We scouted around the cattle stockade for potential camera stations and commenced to install several remote cameras. While we were installing the cameras Chandima said he was getting the smell of a rotting carcass, which we all began to notice.


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Selecting potential camera locations

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Setting up cameras

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Amidst warnings that the leopard could be guarding the kill and would not like anybody approaching it, Chandima traced the kill by its smell and the buzzing of flies. The leopard had dragged the calf across a nearby deep and narrow dry sandy stream bed a distance of 60 meters to high ground where it had partially consumed it. Only the stomach and intestines were eaten while the rest of the calf including its’ head, body and limbs were left intact. Apparently the leopard had not visited the carcass since it had killed it because the stomach cavity was infested with maggots and flies buzzed in their thousands, which had helped to find the carcass.

Quickly abandoning the idea of setting up cameras in and around the stockade we decided to set a remote camera next to the carcass. That evening we arrived around 6 pm and set up one remote camera on the only suitable tree available and directly in line with the carcass. The stench was unbearable but doing our best to ignore it we went about setting up the camera.


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searching for the kill

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At the kill

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The maggot infested carcass of the partially eaten calf,

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Cleaning around the carcass to set up a remote camera

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Sampath covering his nose while helping to install the camera

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Chandima setting the camera mode


May 7th – In the morning the EleBus crew was asked to collect the camera when they went to pick up the kids.

In the meantime I went to meet Mahathun, a farmer who had a large herd of cattle and goats. Over the years we had given him cows and goats to increase and improve his herds. Mahathun very graciously provided a young heifer to give Gunewardena.

Mahatun’s cattle range freely grazing over a vast area and are enclosed in a fenced stockade only at dusk. When the time came to separate the heifer from the rest of the herd, that’s when things started to go south. Having never been tethered in its life before—the moment it was lassoed the heifer ran amok. Deciding it would be less stressful for the heifer and our vehicle won’t get destroyed as well we decided to walk it with the rest of the herd part of the way and then continue on to Gunewardena’s stockade. Hopefully by then the heifer would be somewhat used to the rope around its neck. It turned out to be the worst decision we could’ve made.

Soon as we parted from the herd and started our walk to the village the heifer took off bucking and cavorting in various directions like a bull in a rodeo dragging Mahatun’s teenage son Sanju along with it. In whatever direction it gamboled we too pranced and ran along behind to keep up with it.

The heifer went in every direction: over hill and dale and everything in between other than where we wanted it go. It would rest for a split second which allowed Sanju to get it heading in the right direction and then it would go again dragging Sanju as if he were water skiing in the bush. It did this repeatedly and in this manner we would’ve covered more than 7 kilometers and come no where near Gunewardena’s village. To say we were exhausted by then would be an understatement and on top of that we were totally fed up with the heifer’s intractability. I would’ve gladly exchanged the heifer for an ass.

When we came to a stream the heifer had a long and refreshing drink while we looked on in envy. Not expecting this to turn into a such a long and tiring fiasco we had not even brought a water canteen with us.

After having drunk from the stream now with renewed vigor the heifer led us again on a merry dance and then just as suddenly decided it was not going anywhere! It laid down on the ground and to our consternation simply refused to move. Our frantic efforts were of no avail it would not move or budge an inch. Like in the song “My Grandfather’s Clock” it laid down never to get up again. I always thought mules, asses, and camels were stubborn but this heifer put them all to shame.

Finally as a last resort we called Sampath to bring the Land Rover.


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The cattle in the stockade

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Selecting a heifer

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Sanju attempting to lasso a heifer

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The entire herd heading out to graze. The Knuckles Mountain Range is in the far horizon.

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What should’ve have been a pleasant walk…

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The heifer went everywhere…

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…other than where we wanted it to go!

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It splashed into the stream

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…and had a long and refreshing drink.

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Probably has some mule ancestry in its bloodline!? It laid down never to get up again


This was supposed to be a pleasant walk through forests, glade and grasslands with a chance of seeing some wild elephants. The heifer with its mulish behavior had turned this entire effort into a total disaster.

Now with an inert heifer laying on the ground the obvious solution was to move it by vehicle. Once the decision was made we had no choice other than to tie its four feet so it would not injure itself or us when we put in the vehicle. So there we were with a hog tied heifer at our feet waiting for the Land Rover. Fortunately we were in a desolate location where there were no passersby. Otherwise they would’ve got the impression that was quite contrary to what we were truly attempting to do.

Once Sampath arrived in the Land Rover with the help of a pole we lifted the heifer physically and put her into it and brought her to farmer Gunewardena’s stockade. We were so very glad and relieved to be rid of the obstinate animal at last, that I felt like yelling out loud “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!”

The next farmer who loses stock to a leopard while we would be happy to provide a replacement will have to collect and bring it himself, unless they provide me with a horse.


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All loaded into Glorious

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What a relief! At Gunewardena’s stockade


The EleBus crew when they went to collect the camera had found the carcass had been dragged 3.5 meters from where it was and the leopard had eaten some of it. There were prints around the kill. Unfortunately the camera had not captured the leopard. The leopard had come from an angle that the camera could not detect and had dragged the kill away.

Disappointed but determined by this evidence that the leopard was visiting the kill we set the camera again. But the conditions were not great because we had to set the camera very close to the kill and we did not want to move or disturb the kill fearing it would put off the leopard. The stench had got even worse – biting down hard on the gag reflexes we went about setting the camera.


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The leopard had dragged the kill undetected and consumed most of it

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Leopards prints in the vicinity of the kill

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May 8th – With high anticipation the camera was checked and again it was very disappointing. There were several photos of the leopard but as we had feared due to the proximity of the camera to the kill the photos were “overlit” by the flash. The leopard had visited the kill at: 9.50 pm.

Now we were really determined since we had hard evidence of the leopard and there was still enough left of the carcass and a good chance it would visit it again. This time we set up two cameras next to what was left of the kill to make absolutely certain that we’ll get photos of the leopard. Now the unbearable stench was like a familiar friend or our olfactory nerve had just given up and gone into shut down mode.



The camera was too close.


The leopard carrying the carcass away


May 9th – As soon as the EleBus crew brought the cameras Chandima loaded the memory cards into the computer. We waited with bated breath for the images to load. There were several ghost shots and a few photos of a grey mongoose opportunistically nosing around in the vicinity of the kill little after 6 pm. And then several amazingly clear photos of the leopard. It was fantastic that our efforts had paid off and we now had some really great photos of the Wasgamuwa Cattle Killer. The leopard had visited the kill at 7.42 pm. It seems it was active around 7 pm taking into account that it needed to travel from wherever it was resting to the kill site. Obviously it was not camera shy.

It was a young female leopard and she seemed to be in really good physical condition. We were really curious why she had turned to killing calves. Poaching could be the one and only reason. Poaching in Wasgamuwa is epidemic. All our efforts to bring this matter to the attention of the authorities including providing photos of poachers have not resulted in any follow up action.



A grey mongoose looking for easy pickings.

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The leopard approaching what is left of the kill

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That evening we decided to set three cameras with one on video mode just in case the leopardess visited what was left of the kill again.

On the way from the Wasgamuwa National Park we dropped off the volunteers in the Field House and headed directly to set up the remote cameras. It was dark and the time was 7.15 pm. We knew from last night’s photos that the leopard became active and visited the kill around this time. Parking the Land Rover, we gathered the cameras and tools and walked quickly through the scrub following the dry stream bed to where the kill was.


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The leopard had moved the kill again 3.5 meters but this time to a location that offered ideal conditions to mount three cameras. There was really not much left of the kill – just its’ fore legs.

It was pitch dark and we worked quickly using our flashlights to set up the cameras knowing that the leopard will visit the kill anytime now. The urgency and concern was that on April 18th a leopard had attacked two construction workers in the Kumana National Park located in the very southeast corner of the island. The unprovoked attack had happened around 4 pm. The leopard had killed one laborer and injured the other very seriously.

And here we were messing around a leopard’s kill in the dark! The Kumana leopard had attacked the construction workers in broad daylight without provocation. Just imagine what this leopard would do to us if it found us at its kill in the dark when all the odds were in its favor?

Quickly setting up the cameras we left the area as fast as we could. With very audible sighs of relief we got into the Land Rover and left quickly. The time was 7.40 pm and it had become totally dark. We knew from last night’s photos that the leopard had visited the kill around 7.42 pm. We had managed to leave with just two minutes to spare.


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Asitha positioning what is left of the kill for the cameras

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Chandima setting the camera mode…

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…while some of us kept watch in case the leopard showed up

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Part of the camera trapping crew

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Getting out before the leopard shows up

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Safely back in Glorious


From our remote camera data we know that there are 8 leopards in a 3.5 square kilometer area in these forests. Indiscriminate poaching wipes out the prey base of apex predators, and the presence of poachers in the forests drives these shy predators to find refuge in forest patches adjacent to human habitations, since these are the areas where poachers are least active. As they get pressed into these marginal areas these predators are brought into close contact with village livestock. Then eventually the inevitable happens—they kill their first livestock and as they learn how easy it is they become habitual raiders.

The SLWCS has reached out to several of the known poachers in the area and have managed to convince them to either give up or work with or for the Society. Unfortunately due to the recent events that occurred on Easter Sunday many of these initiatives of the Society will come to an end as the SLWCS finds itself striving to survive in these times of uncertainty.


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The Wasgamuwa Cattle Killer


Big, rumbling thanks to our Corporate Partners for their kind support and to everyone who has donated and supported our wildlife conservation efforts!




elephantea for the SLWCS staff shirts

We would like to thank the following organizations and individuals for donating the remote cameras:

SPECIES Foundation, California, USA
Loi Nguyen, California, USA
Camille Hardman, Mighty Fine Entertainment, California, USA
Boly Media Communications (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd

The Quote: “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!” adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.

Photo Credits:

Sri Lanka Carnivore Project/SLWCS & S.P.E.C.I.E.S. Foundation
Chandima Fernando/SLWCS
Ravi Corea/SLWCS



April turned out to be a challenging month for us and we truly appreciate the support we got from our volunteers


“I was here whilst the attack in Sri Lanka happened and all the staff were really calm and supportive during such a difficult  time. I would recommend this project to anyone who is interested in conservation and definitely hope to come back in the future.” Antonia Loizou, United Kingdom

Natasha Geer
United KingdomI have spent an amazing three weeks with SLWCS and have learned so much about the human elephant conflict in Sri Lanka and about their conservation work to protect the wide variety of wildlife that is present here. Some of the activities during my time here have involved helping to maintain orange trees at local houses for Project Orange Elephant, developing a butterfly garden to encourage more butterfly species, checking  electric fences and elephant dung analysis as well as spending time observing elephants from the tree huts in the afternoons.All the staff are very welcoming and helpful with anything you need and their passion and knowledge for conservation is incredible, all along with smiles and lots of laughter.Despite the attacks that happened in Sri Lanka during my stay, I have always felt safe and welcome here thanks to the staff at the project and I would really recommend this project to anyone who is interested in conservation and seeing this beautiful country and its wildlife.
Kimberley Davies
United KingdomI’ve felt very much part of the project here and the plight to improve human-elephant conflict through various activities. I think my favourite was working at the farm following a crop raid. There you can see a direct link and benefit to the farmer, with us clearing around the orange trees to allow them to grow and flourish. Fab!I was here during the Sri Lanka terrorist attacks, having been stuck in Colombo on Easter Sunday. The guys have worked around the clock making us feel safe and organising everything. Having an armed police guard with us at all times is unnerving but also very reassuring. We even managed a smile from them at the National Park when surrounded by elephants.All in all my experience here has been a great one and I would love to come back again some day. Thank you to everyone here, all the staff, the chef, the driver, and of course our favourite Siriya!

Working on the Butterfly Sanctuary

Isabelle Daly
IrelandI am so sad to be leaving SLWCS early due to recent events, I had planned to stay a month and unfortunately have to leave after just a week but, what a week! From the outset you are totally immersed in the conservation work they do here, from dung analysis to field observations I have had such a fantastic time and genuinely feel like I contributed to the work here. Never did I feel this more than witnessing elephants in their natural habitats after a hard days work weeding orange groves, to see how your work impacts the community here is really special.The team here are so welcoming and have been with all of us every step of the way, helping us and guiding us through such a stressful time for everyone. I have not felt unsafe once while with the team, and even managed to have a genuine laugh through it all.The team here will make you feel like you’re apart of one big family, and rest assured Ill be seeing them again! (Hopefully for longer) Thank you for taking such good care of us.
Jayne Staines
United KingdomSo having spent 2.5 weeks in beautiful Sri Lanka I arrived for my week’s volunteering with the great elephant project or SLWCS as they are known locally. What an amazing time I have had, the staff are professional, caring and extremely knowledgeable – so far we have performed an array of tasks to help with the human elephant conflict in Sri Lanka – from weeding a local’s garden of the citrus trees that will stop bull elephants from raiding her food stores and crops, to dung analysis – which sounds awful – but is interesting to see the diet, age, gender and general health of the elephant analysed, pug – or cat – paw analysis in the hunt for the fishing and jungle cats of Sri Lanka not to mention the hundreds of exotic and beautiful birds, plants and animals that inhabit this jewel in the Asian crown…. And that is before we even start on the majestic beasts that inhabit this island the Asian elephant – Elephas maximus maximus – their familiar patterns of behaviour, their intense loyalty and love for their family groups and their level of intelligence and “fun” as they play in the water sources, chat to each other while foraging for food and the way they look at you with years of knowledge and compassion as they smell you with their amazing trunks and look at you with the wisdom and compassion that summarizes this amazing place.I can’t but heartily recommend Sri Lanka – the political difficulties that we have experienced in the time we are here, will hopefully not put future volunteers off visiting this beautiful island, welcoming people and amazing sanctuary and heaven for such a wide array of beautiful species.

Black-headed Ibis
Marin Krijthe
The NetherlandsI’ve spent a little over a week here and it’s been such a special experience, all thanks to the local SLWCS team. They took such good care of us and made sure we had the best time. Although it’s hard work, it’s also very rewarding and together with the team and other volunteers we enjoyed ourselves every single day. The elephant watching especially makes for an adventure to never forget. I would recommend this programme for sure!
Millicent Dow
United KingdomI have only spent one week here but the staff have been amazing! They are very friendly and made me feel right at home; it has been lovely getting to know everyone. It has been very interesting learning about human-elephant conflict and the solutions that have been produced; the bees and orange trees. Even though the work is hard its enjoyable and you feel that you have accomplished something as a team when you finish! The end of day elephant watching in the Tree Huts was a new experience for me and one I rate highly. This is an excellent programme with incredible people!
Jackson Ball
AustraliaI spent two weeks at the program and I have had a great time. All of the staff are helpful, friendly and make the work we do very fun. They are also happy to take time out of their day to explain any questions you have relating to animal conservation or elephant behaviour. There are quiet times during the day, when it is too hot to work – I would recommend bringing some books or other activities to do during these times. I really enjoyed the trip to the nearby national park – and from what I have heard from other travellers and my own experiences it is really one of the best in Sri Lanka, especially for Elephant spotting, and best of all it is not crowded with tourists.I would recommend this program, it is certainly eye opening to see the impact of human-elephant conflict in remote communities, and how they are being managed, as well as gaining an insight into rural Sri Lankan culture and belief systems.
Alexandre Faury
FranceI spent two weeks at the program, which have been well organized despite extreme temperatures . I discovered a new species off elephants that I didn’t know, it was a surprise to discover that only 5% of them have tusks. They are so numerous that we can understand the human elephant conflict, and the planting of orange trees around neighbors houses. All the staff are very welcoming and helpful with anything you need. The visit to the national park is also fantastic.
Kristin Zimmermann
GermanyI spent four weeks here at the program and it was really amazing. I learned so many new things like how to plant orange trees, how to monitor fences, how to read elephant prints and their poo and last but not leas everything about elephant behaviour. In the afternoon we visited tree houses and looked for elephants there, sometimes we even saw a huge group of elephants or little baby ones. We spent evenings watching movies about the human elephant conflict, we learned where to hide camera traps and I had an amazing evening with other volunteers just by playing cards or different games together.All in all I would definitely recommend this volunteer project because you gain a very good overview about the human elephant conflict and the behaviour of elephants. Furthermore, everybody here us really nice and you always get support from the staff.



Alison Toosdel 
BelgiumI m happy to participated to the programs for help conflict between human and elephant. Thanks a lot to accept me for this adventure.
Aggie Parish 
Arizona, USAI have spent two weeks at the elephant conservation project and it has been wonderful; an experience I will forever cherish. Working with the people of Sri Lanka was an eye-opening experience. They work so hard for what they have, and it has truly given me a greater appreciation for what I have in my home-country. I wish my husband and children could have shared in my experiences, to gain that same appreciation.The staff at the field house have been kind and generous, and always willing to help and answer questions. I am so grateful to the founder of this organization, to have provided not only the experience for me, but for all of the assistance they provide for the villagers and elephants alike.
Emily Falle
United KingdomI have volunteered with this amazing project over the last 3 weeks and I have loved every part of the experience. It has definitely been eye opening seeing the detrimental effects of the human elephant conflict and the impact it has on not only the elephants, but the lives of the locals through home and crop destruction. This has made volunteering here even more special than I could have imagined as you really feel you are helping both the elephants and the locals.I have loved the different range of morning activities although they are definitely hard work in the hot sun! The ones which stood out for me was helping rebuild a house that had been destroyed by elephants and had been like this for over a year! Seeing the joy on the couples face when their home was fixed was a great feeling. Also when interviewing farmers for surveys about the human elephant conflict what I noticed was that everyone of them were so grateful for the work the SLWCS does in the local community showing me that this project really is making a difference.The Field House is great and in such a beautiful location, the staff are so friendly and fun and quick to share with you their wide breadth of knowledge on the surrounding wildlife and conservation and the food is delicious also! I would definitely recommend this experience to anyone.
Katarina Adamovic
GermanyThe whole crew around the SLWCS field house is super friendly and supportive. Learning about the animals and doing different activities every day made my stay here really memorable.Everything has exceeded my expectations by far, regardless if it’s just sitting in tree huts and enjoying the view or working my ass off to make progress in the butterfly garden.Its great to see that this project is working and helping with the human/elephant conflict and that the work of every volunteer helps to support ongoing research into behaviour of the elephants.

I will definitely come back one day to see how far this wonderful organization has come.

Mario Zehetner
AustriaTo saving Elephants by helping people is a great idea! I learned different things about the human animal conflict and counter measurements. I really like to support projects like this by doing some meaningful work. On the other hand there is enough time for relaxing and enjoying the awesome environment as well.The field house is a wonderful place it is simple but it has everything that is needed, including fans. The food is amazing and most of it is vegetarian and vegan. The crew here is very kind so it is very easy to feel welcome here.